Comparative Constitutional Law

Course given together with Mohammad Ibrahim

12.11.19

Semester 1, 2019/20 (IUP); Tuesday, 15:00 - 18:00, room VII.1.1

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Course Description

Comparative studies of constitutional law broaden the horizon and provide for a better understanding of the own constitutional law, its particularities and the alternatives, its strong and weak points and the perspectives of its development. They also facilitate a critical analysis of the domestic constitutional jurisprudence and doctrine, since they can be contrasted with those in other countries. Moreover, comparative studies have often been an important source of inspiration for innovations and solutions in the own constitutional law.

The present course first presents the theoretical and historical backgrounds of the constitution as a legal institution with special regard to contemporary constitutional theory. Then it discusses the various fundamental constitutional decisions that define the constitutional identity of the state, as they are anchored in the fundamental constitutional principles. It will deal mainly with those in the modern free and democratic constitutional state. A third part is devoted to the fundamental rights (constitutional rights), with special regard to modern general fundamental rights doctrine and some selected fundamental rights. Finally, the different models and experiences of constitutional review, an essential element of modern constitutionalism, are presented.

The course mainly focuses on the advanced constitutionalism in Europe and North America. There will be a special focus on the German constitutional law doctrine, which, due to the abundant jurisprudence of the German Federal Constitutional Court, has inspired the development of modern constitutionalism in numerous European and also Asian countries. The course also deals with constitutionalism in Asia. A special section will look at fundamental rights in some Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan and South Korea. It will delve into the arrangement of fundamental rights in their constitutions, how they have been interpreted by the courts and into current problems that hinder the realisation of the fundamental rights. Another section will discuss constitutional review in several countries in Asia, i.e. Indonesia, South Korea, and Japan. Current issues will be touched on, including models of constitutional review, Asian values and waves in the development of modern constitutionalism in Asia.

In order to achieve the credit points for this course, the participants will need to submit a course paper of 15 to 20 pages until Monday, 16.12.2019.

Downloads (PDF files)  

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Contents

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Bibliography

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Diagram 1  (Milestones in constitutional history)

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Diagram 2  (The principle of the rule of law in the modern constitutional state)

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Special material 1  (The Rule of Law as a Constitutional Principle in Germany) (from a guest lecture at Universitas Janabadra in March 2019)

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Special material 2  (How to write a course paper) (from the course Legal Writing)

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Special material 3  (Current problems of the freedom of opinion) (from a workshop at UI in March 2019)

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Special material 4  (Freedom of religion) (from a workshop at UI in March 2019)

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Case 1  (freedom of religion)

 
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Slides presented in the lectures (® aids for illustration)
- Slide 1  (
Introduction; concerning § 1)
- Slide 2  (The constitution as a legal institution; concerning § 2)
- Slide 3  (The significance of fundamental constitutional decisions; concerning § 4)
- Slide 4  (Classical fundamental decisions; concerning § 5)
- Slide 5  (Fundamental decisions in the free and democratic constitutional state; concerning § 6)
- Slide 6  (Special fundamental concepts in other constitutional systems; concerning § 7)
- Slide 7  (General fundamental rights doctrince; concerning § 8)
- Slide 8  (Constitutional review in modern constitutionalism and especially in Germany; concerning §§ 12 and 13)

Contents (summary/details)

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§ 1  Introduction

Part I: The constitution

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§ 2  The constitution as a legal institution

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§ 3  Stages of constitutional history and theory

Part II: Fundamental constitutional decisions

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§ 4  The significance of the fundamental constitutional decisions

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§ 5  Classical fundamental decisions

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§ 6  Fundamental decisions in the free and democratic state

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§ 7  Special fundamental concepts in other constitutional systems

Part III: Fundamental rights

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§ 8 General fundamental rights doctrine

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§ 9  Fundamental rights in Asia

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§ 10  Current problems of the freedom of opinion - the example of Germany

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§ 11  Freedom of religion and tolerance in a pluralistic society - the example of Germany

Part IV: Constiutional review

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§ 12  Constitutional review as an essential element of modern constitutionalism

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§ 13  Constitutional review in Germany

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§ 14  Constitutional review in Asia

Bibliography

[A. Textbooks] [B. Publications on selected special topics] [C. Works of reference, encyclopaedias and handbooks] [D. Law reports and casebooks] [E. Journals]

A. Textbooks

I. Textbooks on comparative constitutional law

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Chang, Wen-ChenM Thio, Li-ann; Tan, Kevin Y. L.; Yeh, Jiunn-rong: Constitutionalism in Asia. Cases and Materials, 2014 [→ T.S.]

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Dixon, Rosalind; Ginsburg, Tom (editors): Comparative Constitutional Law, 2011

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Dixon, Rosalind; Ginsburg, Tom (editors): Comparative Constitutional Law in Asia, 2014

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Heringa, Aalt Willem: Constitutions Compared. An Introduction to Comparative Constitutional Law, 4th edition 2016

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Jacobsohn, Gary; Schor, Miguel (editors): Comparative Constitutional Theory, 2018

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Rosenfeld, Michael; Sajó, András (editors): The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law, 2012

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Tushnet, Mark: Advanced Introduction to Comparative Constitutional Law, 2nd edition 2018 [→ T.S.]

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Masterman, Roger; Schütze, Robert (editors): The Cambridge Companion to Comparative Constitutional Law, 2019 [coming soon]

II. Textbooks in English on the constitutional law of individual states

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Butt, Simon; Lindsey, Tim: The Constitution of Indonesia. A Contextual Analysis, 2012 [→ law library]

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Butt, Simon; Lindsey, Tim: Indonesian Law, 2018 (cf. chapters 1, 2, 5 and 13)

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Heun, Werner: The Constitution of Germany. A Contextual Analysis, 2011 [→ T.S.]

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Robbers, Gerhard: Constitutional Law in Germany, 2017

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Robbers, Gerhard: An Introduction to German Law, 7th edition 2019 (cf. p. 32 ff.) [→ T.S.]

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Zekoll, Joachim; Wagner, Gerhad (editors): Introduction to German Law, 3rd edition 2018 (cf. chapter 2)

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Boyron, Sophie: The Constitution of France. A Contextual Analysis, 2012

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Paris, Marie-Luce; Foulon, Julie; Pouillaude, Hugo-Bernard ; Sterck, Julien: Constitutional Law in France, 2019

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Onida, Valerio: Constitutional Law in Italy, 2nd edition 2019

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Ruiz Robledo, Agustín: Constitutional Law in Spain, 2nd edition 2018

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Bovend'Eert, Paul; Kortmann, Constantijn: Constitutional Law in the Netherlands, 3rd edition 2018

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Sedler, Robert A.: Constitutional Law in the United States, 3rd edition, 2017

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Tushnet, Mark: The Constitution of the United States of America. A Contextual Analysis, 2nd edition 2015

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Webber, Jeremy: The Constitution of Canada. A Contextual Analysis, 2015

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Saunders, Cheryl: The Constitution of Australia. A Contextual Analysis, 2011

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Yeh, Jiunn-rong: The Constitution of Taiwan. A Contextual Analysis, 2015

See also the textbooks on the constitutional law of many other European, South American and Asian states and some African states in the two series "Constitutional Law in ..." (published by Wolters Kluwer) and "Constitutional Systems of the World" (published by Hart Publishing).

B. Publications on selected special topics

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Buratti, Andrea: Western Constitutionalism. History, Institutions, Comparative Law, 2nd edition 2019 (mainly about constit. history)

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Chen, Albert H. Y. (editor): Constitutionalism in Asia in the Early Twenty-First Century, 2016 [→ law library]

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Chen Albert H. Y.; Harding, Andrew (editors): Constitutional Courts in Asia. A Comparative Perspective, 2018

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Delaney, Erin F.; Dixon, Rosalind (editors): Comparative Judicial Review, 2018

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Ginsborg, Tom; Rosen, Mark D.; Vanberg, Georg (editors): Constitutions in Times of Financial Crisis, 2019

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Ginsburg, Tom; Simpser, Alberto: Constitutions in Authoritarian Regimes, 2013

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Ginsburg, Tom (editor): Comparative Constitutional Design, 2012 [→ law library]

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Glaser, Henning (editor): Constitutional Jurisrpudence. Function, Impact and Challenges, 2016

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Grote, Rainer; Röder, Tilmann J.: Constitutionalism, Human Rights, and Islam after the Arab Spring, 2016

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Hirschl, Ran: Comparative Matters. The Renaissance of Comparative Constitutional Law, 2014

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Irving, Helen (editor): Constitutions and Gender, 2019

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Neo, Jaclyn L.; Son, Bui Ngoc (editors): Pluralist Constitutions in Southeast Asia, 2019

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Pünder, Hermann; Waldhoff, Christian (editors): Debates in German Public Law, 2014

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Rogowski, Ralf; Gawron, Thomas (editors): Constitutional Courts in Comparison: The US Supreme Court and the German Federal Constitutional Court, 2016

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Sperti, Angioletta: Constitutional Courts, Gay Rights and Sexual Orientation Equality, 2019

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Visser, Maartje de: Constitutional Review in Europe. A Comparative Analysis, 2013

C. Works of reference, encyclopaedias and handbooks (for in-depth scientific research)

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Bogdany, Armin von; Huber, Peter M. et al. (editors): Handbuch Ius Publicum Europaeum [Handbook of European Public Law], vol. I: Grundlagen und Grundzüge staatlichen Verfassungsrechts [Foundations and Basics of State Constitutional law], 2007; vol. II: Offene Staatlichkeit - Wissenschaft vom Verfassungsrecht [Open Statehood - Constitutional Law Science], 2008; vol. VI: Verfassungsgerichtsbarkeit in Europa: Institutionen [Constiutional Jurisdiction in Europe: Institutions], 2016

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Grote, Rainer; Lachenmann, Frauke; Wolfrum, Rüdiger (editors): Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law, 2017 ff. (online encyclopedia)

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Merten, Detlef; Papier, Hans-Jürgen et al. (editors): Handbuch der Grundrechte in Deutschland und Europa [Handbook of Fundamental Rights in Germany and Europe], vol. I - X, 2004 - 2018

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Kortmann, Constantijn; Fleuren, Joseph; Voermans, Wim (editors): Constitutional Law of 10 EU Member States.The 2004 Enlargement, 2006 [→ T.S.]

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Prakke, Lucas; Kortmann, Constantijn (editors): Constitutional Law of 15 EU Member States, 2004 [→ T.S.]

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Robbers, Gerhard (editor): Encyclopaedia of World Constitutions, 2006

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Tushnet, Mark; Fleiner, Thomas; Saunders, Cheryl (editors): Routledge Handbook of Constitutional Law, 2015

D. Law reports and casebooks

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Bröhmer, Jürgen; Hill, Clauspeter; Spitzkatz, Marc (editors): 60 Years German Basic Law: The German Constitution and its Court, 2nd edition 2012 (English translations of landmark decisions on fundamental rights)

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Bumke, Christian; Vosskuhle, Andreas: Casebook on German Constitutional Law, 2019

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Urofsky, Melvin I.: Supreme Decisions. Great Constitutional Cases and Their Impact, vol. 1 and 2, 2012 (landmark decisions on U.S. constit. law)

E. Journals in the field of comparative constitutional law (in English)

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AJCCL: Africa Journal of Comparative Constitutional Law, since 2016

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ECLR: European Constitutional Law Review, since 2005

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ERPL/REDP: European Review of Public Law / Revue Européene de Droit Public, since 1989

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GLJ: German Law Journal, since 2000

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HJRL: Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, since 2009

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GlobCon: Global Constitutionalism. Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law, since 2012

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ICL JournL: Vienna Journal on International Constitutional Law, since 2007

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I*CON: International Journal of Constitutional Law, since 2003

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IJHRCS: International Journal of Human Rights and Constitutional Studies, since 2013

Contributions on constitutional law with a comparative approach can also be found in the general journals of comparative law and in the national journals of constitutional law or public law.

Links

A. Links concerning the general subject of the course

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Constitutions: Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia of 1945 in English (html/pdf) and Indonesian, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany of 1949, American Constitution of 1787, French Constitution of 1958, constitutions of EU member states, other constitutions (Constitute/ICL)

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Constitutional courts: Mahkama Konstitusi (Indonesia), Bundesverfassungsgericht (Germany), Conseil Constitutionnel (France), Corte Costituzionale (Italy), Tribunal Constitucional (Spain), Constitutional Court of South Africa, Constitutional Court of Korea, others; ordinary courts with constitutional jurisdiction: U.S. Supreme Court, High Court of Australia

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Associations: IACL (International Association of Constitutional Law), ICON*S (International Society of Public Law), AACS (Association for Asian Constitutional Studies), SIPE (Societas Iuris Publici Europaei, association of European constitutionalists), EPLO (European Public Law Organisation), ANCL (African Network of Constitutional Lawyers)

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Research institutions: Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law (Heidelberg, with huge library on public law in the world), Institute for European Constitutional Law (Trier), German-Southeast Asian Center of Excellence for Public Policy and Good Governance (Bangkok), Center for Constitutional Studies and Democratic Development (Bologna), Center for Comparative Constitutional Studies (Melbourne)

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Antonia Baragga, Challenges in Comparative Constitutional Law Studies: Between Globalization and Constitutional Tradition, Law and Method 10.2017; Philipp Dann, The Global South in Comparative Constitutional Law, Völkerrechtsblog 14.07.2017, Ran Hirschl, The Rise of Comparative Constitutional Law: Thoughts on Substance and Methods, Indian Journal of Constitutional Law 2018, p. 11 ff.

B. Links concerning special subjects

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concerning § 2 VI: U.S. Supreme Court, Marbury v. Madison, 1803 (primacy of the constitution and constitutional review); Jutta Limbach, The Concept of the Supremacy of the Constitution, Modern Law Review 64 (2001), no. 1, p. 1 ff.

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concerning § 2 VIII: Christian Bumke; Andreas Voßkuhle, German Constitutional Law, 2019, no. 161 ff., on the interpretation of laws in conformity with the constitution according to the Federal Constitutional Court (cf. BVerfGE 86, 288, 320; 122, 39, 60)

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concerning § 2 IX: Gàbor Halmai, Constitutional Interpretation in a Globalized World, Journal of Parliamentary and Political Law 2012, 271 ff.

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concerning § 3 I: Instrument of Government (England 1653), Virginia Bill of Rights (1776), Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen (France 1789; French/Engl.), Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe (2004)

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concerning § 4 VI: Dieter Grimm, Constituent Power and Limits of Constitutional Amendments, Nomos 2-2016; Yaniv Roznai, Unconstitutional Constitutional Amendments: A Study of the Nature and Limits of Constitutional Amendment Powers, doctoral thesis London 2014

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concerning § 5 III: Wilhelm Hofmeister; Edmund Tayo (editors), Federalism and Decentralisation. Perceptions for Political and Institutional Reforms, 2016; Elliot Blumer, Federalism, 2017 (published by IDEA); Parliament of Australia, Overview of Australian Federalism; IACFS (International Association of Centers for Federal Studies)

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concerning § 6 I: Venice Commission (European Commission for Democracy through Law, expert commission of the Council of Europe)

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concerning § 6 II: Venice Commission (editor), The principle of respect for human dignity, Doc. no. CDL-STD(1998)026, 1998; Paolo Becchi; Klaus Mathis (editors), Handbook of Human Dignity in Europe, 2019

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concerning § 6 III: See the links on the principle of democracy from the course Electoral Law

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concerning § 6 IV: Venice Commission (editor), Rule of Law Checklist, 2016; Gertrude Lübbe-Wolff, The Principle of Proportionality in the Case-Law of the German Federal Constitutional Court, HRLJ 34 (2014), 12; Luka Anđelković, The elements of Proportionality as a Principle of Human Rights Limitations, Law and Politics 15 (2017), no. 3, 235; Thomas Schmitz, Observations on the Role of the Rule of Law in Times of Globalisation and Populism, IC-GLOW 2018

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concerning § 7 III: Fu Hualing; Jason Buhi, Diverging Trends in the Socialist Constitutionalism of the People's Republic of China and Socialist Republic of Vietnam, University of Hong Kong Faculty of Law Research Paper No. 2017/015

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concerning § 7 IV: Moamen Gouda, Islamic Constitutionalism and Rule of Law: A Constitutional Economics perspective, Constitutional Political Economy 24 (2013), 57

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concerning § 8 II: art. 1(3) German Basic Law (fundamental rights as directly applicable law - today a standard of constitutionalism)

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concerning § 8 III: The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (the world's most modern catalogue of fundamental rights, with the most up-to-date categorisation of rights)

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concerning § 8 IV and § 10: Lüth Decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfGE 7, 198, English translation - fundamental rights as objective system of constitutional values)

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concerning § 10: Oliver Jouanjan, Freedom of Expression in the Federal Republic of Germany, Indiana Law Journal 84 (2009), no. 3

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concerning § 10 IV: Winfried Brugger, The Treatment of Hate Speech in German Constitutional Law, German Law Journal 4 (2003), no. 1; decisions of the German Federal Constitutional Court: BVerfGE 93, 266 ("soldiers are murderers", English translation), BVerfGE 90, 241 (denial of holocaust, English translation), BVerfGE 124, 300 (criminal prosecution of approval of the National Socialist regime of terror, English translation)

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concerning § 11: Decisions of the German Federal Constitutional Court: BVerfGE 93,1 (Crucifix decision, English translation), BVerfGE 108, 282 and BVerfGE 138, 296 (headscarves of teachers, English translations); European Court on Human Rights, Decision of 11.07.2017, Belcacemi and Oussar v. Belgium (ban on niqab and burka, English press release)

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[more links will follow during the course]

 

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